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Provisional Govt. of India

Officially it was Provisional Government Hind. It was founded on the 1st of December, 1915 in a room of the palace of Bagh Babar at Kabul, Afghanistan. Only five persons where present. Rajaji became its President, and Moulana Barkatulla became Prime minister. Later Moulana Ubaidullah Sindhi accepted the portfolio of the Home Minister and the Minister of publicity. About twenty young men, students from Lahore and two Sikhs formed the Secretariat. Much later Moulvi Bashir Ahmad was appointed Minister of War Mr. Champak Caman Pillam become Foreign Minister with his office at Berlin. Mlnister Ali Zakaria was Minister of Communications. A secret treaty was made with the Royal Government of Afghanistan It was signed by Rajah and H. M. The Air of Afghanistan Habibullab Khan. The most important clause of the treaty was that Afghanistan would lend fifty thousand troops to fight in India against the British. For every Afghan sole kr killed free India would give ten thousand rupees. River Sind was to be the boundary between Free India and Afghanistan. Afghanistan was to declare war against the British when twenty five thousand soldiers arrived from Germany.


Activities of provisional Government

Maulana Ubaidullab sent men to India with messages and government proclamations to army to rebel and to drive out the British from India (Some of them can be seen in the National Archives) He was from Deoband Muslim University. He had his men in Sind, Punjab and Bihar, besides at Deoband.


Rajaji’s letters were sent to the elder brother of Acharya Kripalani who was Musalman. Acharya Ji himself told Rajaji that he took his letters to Vrindaban, Allahabad and Benaras. Rajaji requested Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya Ji, Babu Shiv Prasad Gupta and Babu Narain Das of Vrindaban to spread his messages.


Rajaji as the President sent a letter on a solid gold plate. to the Zar of Russia. It was taken to Tashkent by Mr Khushi Mohemmod and Doctor Mathura Singh, named bv Rajaji Shamsber Singh. They were received by Governor Kropatkin. They had alsoo with them two servants.


Governor said. letter to the Zar would be forwarded. Presents sent by Rajaji were not accepted. Envoys were asked to return to Kabul and it was promised tbat answer would be sent to Afghanitan.


In this mission head was Sardar Shamsher Singh. Mohemmod Aii was his assistant. They came to Kabul. Prime Minister Sardar Nasrullah Khan become very hopeful. He at his own expense organised the army of twelve thousand Afridies at the frontier. Tbis army fought here and there.


Shamsher Singh insisted on going to Russia. Mr. Qadir Bakhsh or Khuda Bakhsh was made the head of the second Mission. Shamsher Singh was made his assistant. They were, however, not allowed to proceed to Tashkent. They remained at Tirmiz. Thence they were handed over to tbe British at Meshad in Iran. Shams her Singh, was hanged at Peshawar and Bakhsh, being a son of some high official, was interned.


The second Mission carried letters to Japan, China and America. It was only to travel through Siberia. Rajaji wrote letters to tbe Japanese and Chinese governments and Maulana wrote letters to bis American friends.


A Mission to friends in in Iran was also sent. Mr. Carsasp and a Sikh Sardar were given messages. They were arrested by tbe British in Seistan and were sbot at tbe spot. Carsasp was a Parsi and his father was once a Dewan of Baroda.

Mr. Udham Singh or Kala Singh carried the letter of the Chancellor Bethwen Hollweg and Rajaji’s message to the King of Nepal. Germany recognised him as His Majesty. Rajaji bad to appeal strongly for it. Later the British recognised the title Kala Singb was helped by Mujahidin of Asmas. One day back KalaSingh was arrested Mujahiddin escaped and give the news to Rajaji how well mission was received by tbe Royal Prime Minister of Nepal.


Maulana Barkatullah reached Moscow in 1918 after that Rajaji had passed Russia, helped by Mr. Trotsky. Rajaji going through Russia in March, 1918 was triumphal He was taken by a special train from Tashkent to Petrograd. which later became Leningard. He spoke at a meeting with an audience of twenty five thousand.


When Rajaji was in Europe, in early 1919, a great change happened in Afghanistan. Amir Habibullah was murdered and King Amanullah came to the throne. Home Minister Ubaidullab encouraged the king to declare war on the British govemment in India. This news brought Rajaji flying to Russia. It is another interesting story how he got four companions, how he flew over the fighting line between Red White Russians. With two companions he reached Moscow.


It was at this time that Rajaji was received by comrade Leinin at the Kremlin. Five Indians and Professor Vosnesenski of the Foreign office were with him at the historical interview. The credit goes to Maulana Barkatulla for estab1ishiflg very good relations with the Soviet Foreign Office which introduced Rajaji to Comrade Lenin. Mr. Karakhan arranged Journey to go to Kabul with Mr. Surits who was appointed ambasador. It was promised that Russia would help Rajaji in his plan of revolution in India. Rajaji and Mr. Surits arrived on the 12th December 1912 at Kabul. War with Kosaks near Ural Mountains and horse back travel from Herat to Kabul delayed tbem. King Amanullah followed his advice and friendly treaty was made between Afghanistan and Soviet Russia.


Maulvie Abdur Rub and Acharya who accompanied Rajaji from Beriin to Moscow and then to Kabul were expelled by King Amanullab from Afghanistan for anti Afghanistan activities. It may also be mentioned that they were later expelled by Russia, too.


King Amanullah asked Rajaji to go on his Mission, to China, Japan, Tibet, Siam, America, Germany and Turkey. This Mission, however, had to end at Tashkent when Afghanistan could make peace witb England. Rajaji returned royal letters.

Maulana Ubaidullah left Kabul when King Amanullah asked him to end all activities of his Provisional Government of India in Afghanistan. He stayed long in Moscow and later left for Turkey and Mecca .Maulana Barkatulla left Moscow for Berlin, Germany.


1n 1925 Rajaji collected twelve thousand dollars from Indian workers in California with the help of Gadar party and Afghan Association. Two thousand dollars Rajaji sent for Maulana Barkatullah and three other Indian freinds in Germany. He also took seven Indian volunteers to go with him to Tibet.

The idea was that as Rajaji had opened up western route to India with Russian, Afghan and Mujahidin of the Indian frontier co-operation and he opened the norhern route with Chinese, Tibetan and Nepal Cooperation.They landed in Japan. Proceeded to Peking and Kalgan. Marshal Feng Yu Shiag gave his full support. Here it may also be mention that Mr. Karakhan, Ambassader of Russia at Peking gave him a verbal message for Dalai Lama in answer to his secret letter to Russia.


Via Ningsha lanch they arrived at Sining Fu.Here general Nachi gave him great miltary welcome. Here Rajajl bought horses and mues to travel in Tibet. His subordinate governor of Cheku.Teibten name Faigundo, received him warmly and gave a Chinese banquet.They were guests of the Tibetan Govenor of Chhamdo. Lama Phag,Phala Head of the Eastern Tibet Monesatries, became Rajaji’s good friend. Theywere, however, asked to leave Chhomdo and wait outside the Tibetan territory till an answer came from Lhasa. They returned to neutral Gomba.At last, they were back at Chhomdo. They were again the guests of the Governor. Now Dalai Lama’s answer was received. They were told they were free to remain in Tibet but they could not proceed to Lhassa.


Nepali counsul did not answer his letter, He had to take permission from Kathmandu. His money was finishing.he had brought Chinese silver.It had good value in Tibet but the volunteers,Chinese and Tibetan servants and twenty horses and mules had to be fed.Rajaji decide to return by the southern route. It was dramatic move of the Tibetan central govt. The Prime minister himself coming from Lhasa met him on the way.He told him he had come to inspect the frontier fighting.Rajaji presented him a powerful binocular. Passage was difficult.He had to pass to passes covered by snow.


Executive board of India was established during the world war at Tokya.Japan.Rajaji was the president,Baba Ras Behari Bose was the vice president and Mr. Anand Mohan Sahay the general secretary. Rajaji made contacts with German and Italian embassies.He held meetings on the 20th Nov. 1941.Aryan flag was hoisted. Its activities came to an end when he did not agree with the plan of the Japanese govt. and Babu ras Behari Bose and Mr. Sahay agreed.Both went to Singapore and Bangkok.rajai had objected to the Japanese plan as he did not want Japanese troops to enter India. Is another story that the plan did not work.Mr Subhash chander Bose later on was invited from Germany.he came and formed the second govt. in exile.He followed Rajaji’s plan and he could work on a larger scale.


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